ComAp and Grid Codes

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The increasing use of renewable power sources for power generation brings new demands to system operators and control systems to ensure safe, secure and economical functioning of an electricity network. These demands are reflected in new connection requirements for power generation control systems - grid codes. These grid codes are typically defined by the local transmission network operator (TNO) and are unique for each country, however there are commonalities across the world.


ComAp has developed comprehensive and flexible solutions for every application including paralleling gen-sets, CHP and more. Our products meet or exceed the local grid codes or standards from countries around the world and are constantly being reviewed and updated to ensure they stay up to date with any changes. ‚Äč

What are Grid Codes?

Grid Codes are technical specifications which define the parameters that anything connected to a public electric network has to meet to ensure safe, secure and proper functioning of the system. The facility can be an power generation plant, a solar farm, or any other grid connected source.

ComAp and Grid Codes

Our products contain the following features to align with the latest Grid Code regulations.

Operating area

There are defined minimum parameters for voltage and frequency levels for any grid connected gen-set. These parameters define when and where the gen-set can run, and what voltage and freqency they must run at. 
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Dynamic network support

The Voltage Ride Through (VRT) function supports the grid during short, but significant voltage drops or peaks. The area is defined by voltage level and time. The VRT function can be split into two types: Low Voltage Ride Through (LVRT), which supports the grid during voltage drops and Over Voltage Ride Through (OVRT), which supports grid during peaks.

Some countries require both LVRT and OVRT, and some require only one – ComAp’s products support both.
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Active power response to frequency

Frequency is one of the most important indicators of power in the grid. If the frequency is falling, there is a lack of active power in the network. If it is rising, more active power is being generated than is necessary. Both of which are not ideal. This can be caused by renewable power sources more or less power depending on solar input, (for example). Details might be different in different countries, but in principle the requirement is to increase the gen-set's power on under-frequency and reduce gen-set's power on over-frequency.

 
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Reactive power control

Reactive power is an important part of the grid and its amount can be indicated by voltage level. There are several functions related to reactive power control and system stability. The requirement of particular functionalities is dictated by the local transmission network operator.

Alternator Operating Area

Reactive power is an important part of the grid and its amount might be indicated by voltage level. There are several functions related to reactive power control and system stability. The requirement of particular functionalities is dictated by the local transmission network operator.
 
There is a defined generator operating area of a P/Q ratio and implementation of maximum apparent power (Smax). This parameter is important especially in the case of undervoltage when there is higher demand for reactive power. In that case the actual current might be higher than the nominal current, and the control system will decrease the gen-set's actual power to gain the required reactive power, but not exceed the maximum apparent power Smax.
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Reactive Power and Power Factor Control Modes

Depending on local regulations reactive power and power factor control modes may be required:
  • Fixed PF
  • Fixed Q
  • Qref=f(Ulim)
  • PF=f(Pm)
  • Q=f(Um)

All of these features might not be required in every country. It is always dependent on local transmission network operators, local regulations and grid codes. Please check with your local network operators for network requirements in your country before connecting any equipment to the mains grid. 

Application examples

SPtM SPtM
SPI SPI
MINT MINT
PCC PCC

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